What is Hyperglycemia? A blood glucose level of over 180 mg/dl (10 mmol/l) is considered hyperglycemia (signs high blood sugar), and can result in nausea, fatigue, and eventually lead to long-term complications. To correct hyperglycemia, patients commonly use a dose of rapid-acting insulin.
Hyperglycemia is a hallmark sign of diabetes (both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes) and prediabetes. Other conditions that can cause high blood sugar are pancreatitis, Cushing’s syndrome, unusual hormone-secreting tumors, pancreatic cancer, certain medications, and severe illness
Signs And Symptoms of Hyperglycemia
In addition to having elevated levels of glucose in the blood, people with hyperglycemia often have glucose detected in their urine. Ordinarily urine contains no glucose because it is reabsorbed by the kidneys.
The main symptoms of hyperglycemia are increased thirst and a frequent need to urinate. Other symptoms that can occur with high blood sugar are
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Shortness of breath.
- Stomach pain.
- Fruity breath odor.
- A very dry mouth.
- Unintentional weight loss
- Recurrent infections
Very high blood sugar levels can cause life-threatening complications, such as:
- diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) – a condition caused by the body needing to break down fat as a source of energy, which can lead to a diabetic coma; this tends to affect people with type 1 diabetes
- hyperosmolar hyperglycemia state (HHS) – severe dehydration caused by the body trying to get rid of excess sugar; this tends to affect people with type 2 diabetes
How To Check Blood Sugar Levels
Target blood sugar levels differ for everyone, but generally speaking:
- if you monitor yourself at home with a self-testing kit – a normal target is 4-7mmol/l before eating and under 8.5-9mmol/l 2 hours after a meal
- if your HbA1c level is tested every few months – a normal HbA1c target is below 48mmol/mol (or 6.5% on the older measurement scale)
- Random home blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 180 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) — 10 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) — or higher suggests diabetes.
- Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it’s 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes.
- Oral glucose tolerance test. For this test, you fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood sugar levels are tested periodically for the next two hours.
BLOOD GLUCOSE METERS AND STRIPS
What They Do: Blood glucose meters (BGMs) measure a person’s blood sugar level. To use a meter, users insert a test strip, prick their fingers with a lancing device to draw blood, and then apply a small drop of blood onto a test strip. The meter then gives a blood glucose reading in mg/dl (US standard) or mmol/l (European standard). A blood sugar level of under 70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/l) is typically considered hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). A level of over 180 mg/dl (10 mmol/l) is considered hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia are potentially dangerous situations where blood sugars are out of normal range and can be addressed using fast-acting carbohydrates (in the case of a low value) or insulin (in the case of a high value).
What Supplies Do I Need To Home Test
To monitor your blood sugar, these supplies are required:
- Test strips
- Lancing instrument (used to prick the finger for blood)
- Blood glucose meter
- Some meters are coupled with smartphone apps to monitor data
Conclusion: Having a hyper every once in a while is not such a problem. But specially higher values for a longer period (months) are not good for the body. In the long run, they cause damage to the blood vessels. And this leads to numerous complications later on in life.
Garry ( Type 1)